||Prophylactically given as an alternative to aspirin in patients at risk of thromboembolic disorders eg, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease and stroke.
| Dosage & Administration
||Usual Dose: 75 mg or 1 tablet once daily.
| Special Precautions
||Clopidogrel should not be given to patients with hematopoietic disorders eg, neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, hemorrhagic diathesis or other hematopoietic diathesis or other hemorrhagic disorders associated with a prolonged bleeding time, or conditions with an increased risk or bleeding eg, gastrointestinal ulcers, acute cerebral hemorrhage or severe liver dysfunction. Complete blood count should be done before starting treatment and every 2 weeks during the 1st 3 months of treatment.
| Adverse Drug Reactions
||Effects on the Blood: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura cases and hemolytic uremic syndrome have been reported.
Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract: Gastrointestinal Disturbances: Common: Diarrhea.
Effects on the Kidneys: Membranous nephropathy with nephrotic syndrome has been observed.
Effects on the Joints: Acute arthritis was reported 2-3 weeks after starting clopidogrel treatment.
Effects on Taste: Loss of taste occurred 6-8 weeks after starting treatment with clopidogrel.
| Drug Interactions
||Patients taking clopidogrel with other drugs eg, anticoagulants and antiplatelets should be carefully monitored for this may increase risk of bleeding. This may also inhibit the metabolism of other drugs that take place in the liver.
| Mechanism of Action
||Pharmacology: Clopidogrel is an analogue of ticlopidine with similar actions and uses. It is an antiplatelet drug used in thromboembolic disorders, acts by inhibiting adenosine diphosphate-mediated platelet aggregation.
Pharmacokinetics: Clopidogrel is rapidly but incompletely absorbed following oral administration; absorption appears to be about 50%. It is a prodrug and is extensively metabolized in the liver following absorption, mainly to the inactive carboxylic acid derivative. The active metabolite appears to be a thiol derivative but has not been identified in plasma. Clopidogrel and the carboxylic acid derivative are highly protein bound. Clopidogrel and its metabolites are excreted about equally in the urine and in feces.
| ATC Classification
||Clopidogrel ; Belongs to the class of platelet aggregation inhibitors excluding heparin. Used in the treatment of thrombosis.
|| FC tab 75 mg x 100's.
||Isophane insulin human (recombinant DNA origin)
||Management of type I & II diabetes (who are not adequately controlled by diet &/or oral hypoglycemic agents) & gestational diabetes; for the initial stabilization of diabetes in patients w/ diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome & during periods of stress eg severe infections & major surgery in diabetic patients.
|Dosage & Administration
||SC inj Diabetes Type 1 0.5-1 IU/kg/day. Type 2 0.3-0.6 IU/kg/day.
||Caution should be made when switching to another type of insulin. Monitor blood glucose & measure HbA1c periodically. Hepatic or renal impairment. May impair ability to drive or operate machinery. Pregnancy & lactation.
|Adverse Drug Reactions
||Hypoglycemia, edema, allergy to insulin, hyperglycemia & ketoacidosis, lipoatrophy & lipodystrophy, insulin resistance.
||Corticosteroids, INH, niacin, estrogens, OC, phenothiazines, thyroid replacement therapy. Oral hypoglycemics, salicylates, sulfa antibiotics, certain antidepressants eg MAOIs, certain ACE inhibitors & ß-blockers, pancreatic function inhibitors. Alcohol.
|Mechanism of Action
||Pharmacology: Mechanism of Action: Like all other insulins, the glucose lowering effect of isophane insulin human suspension-NPH is due to the facilitated uptake of glucose in body tissues. This uptake occurs following the binding of insulin to its receptors present in the muscle and adipose tissues. The blood glucose lowering effect of insulin also occurs due to the simultaneous inhibition of glucose output from the liver.
Pharmacokinetics: Insulin has a t½ of a few minutes in the bloodstream. Consequently, the time course of action of any insulin may vary considerably in different individuals or at different times in the same individual. As with insulin preparations, the intensity and duration of action of Wosulin-N is dependent on the dose, site of injection, blood supply, temperature and physical activity.
An average action profile after SC injection indicates onset within 1-2 hrs, peak levels attained between 6-12 hrs and duration of action is approximately 18-24 hrs. The time course of action of any insulin may vary considerably in different individuals or at different times in the same individual.
Wosulin-N is an amorphous and crystalline suspension of human insulin with zinc in providing intermediate-acting insulin with onset and a longer duration of activity than that of regular insulin.
| ATC Classification
||Insulin (human) ; Belongs to the class of fast-acting insulins and analogues. Used in the treatment of diabetes.
|Presentation / Packing
||Inj 100 IU/mL (vial) x 10 mL x 1's. 100 IU/mL (cartridge) x 3 mL x 1's.
Another Featured Product
Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attacks), heart failure, aneurysms of the arteries (e.g. aortic aneurysm), peripheral arterial disease and is a cause of chronic kidney disease. Even moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure is associated with a shortened life expectancy. Dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control and decrease the risk of associated health complications, although drug treatment is often necessary in people for whom lifestyle changes prove ineffective or insufficient. credits: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypertension
GENERIC NAME: METOPROLOL tartrate
BRAND NAME: NEOBLOC
Treatment of hypertension and chronic angina pectoris.
GENERIC NAME: LOSARTAN potassium
BRAND NAME: NEOSARTAN
Management of hypertension and may have a role in patients who develop cough with ACE inhibitors.
GENERIC NAME: CARVEDILOL
BRAND NAME: BETACARD
Management of HTN & angina pectoris, also as an adjunct to standard therapy in symptomatic heart failure.
GENERIC NAME: Trimetazidine HCl
BRAND NAME: TRYME-MR
Long-term treatment of coronary insufficiency episodes; angina pectoris; ischemia of neurosensorial tissue as in Meniere's disease
GENERIC NAME: Amlodipine besilate
BRAND NAME: GX AMLODIPINE
Management of HTN & prophylaxis of angina pectoris.
GENERIC NAME: Clopidogrel bisulfate
BRAND NAME: NEOCLOPID
Prophylactically given as an alternative to aspirin in patients at risk of thromboembolic disorders eg MI, peripheral arterial disease & stroke.
Cholesterol, from the Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid) followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol, is an organic chemical substance classified as a waxy steroid of fat. It is an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes and is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. credits
Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
GENERIC NAME: GLIMEPIRIDE
BRAND NAME: ARYA
Treatment of type 2 DIABETES.
GENERIC NAME: AMIODARONE HCI
BRAND NAME: ANOION
Control of recurrent ventricular arrhythmias including arrhythmias associated w/ Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
GENERIC NAME: SILDENAFIL CITRATE
BRAND NAME: NEO-UP
Management of erectile dysfunction.
GENERIC NAME: GEMFIBROZIL
BRAND NAME: REDUCEL
Treatment of hyperlipidemia and to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. As a hypolipidemic agent in conjunction with dietary modification.
GENERIC NAME: METFORMIN HCI
BRAND NAME: NEOFORM
Management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
GENERIC NAME: SIMVASTATIN
BRAND NAME: SIMVASYN
Used to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and triglycerides.
An antibacterial is a compound or substance that kills or slows down the growth of bacteria. The term is often used synonymously with the term antibiotic(s); today, however, with increased knowledge of the causative agents of various infectious diseases, antibiotic(s) has come to denote a broader range of antimicrobial compounds, including antifungal and other compounds. credits: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antibiotic
GENERIC NAME: CEFALEXIN
BRAND NAME: FOREXINE
Treatment for respiratory tract, ENT, GUT, skin and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible micro organisms.
GENERIC NAME: CEFUROXIME AXETIL
BRAND NAME: KEFSYN
Treatment for lower and upper respiratory tract, GUT, skin and soft tissue infections and gonorrhea.
GENERIC NAME: AMOXICILLIN
BRAND NAME: GLOBAPEN
Treatment for upper and lower respiratory tract, GIT, GUT, skin and soft tissue infections including H. pylori in peptic ulcer.
GENERIC NAME: LEVOFLOXACIN
BRAND NAME: FLEVOXCIN
Treatment of a wide range of infections including lower respiratory tract infections, typhoid and paratyphoid fever and urinary tract infections (UTIs).
FLEVOXCIN is also used in the prophylaxis of meningococcal meningitis and surgical infection.
GENERIC NAME: COTRIMOXAZOLE
BRAND NAME: GLOBAXOL
Treatment for respiratory tract, UTI, GUT, GIT, skin and soft tissue infections caused by susceptible micro organisms.
Disorders of the stomach are very common and induce a significant amount of morbidity and suffering in the population. Data from hospitals indicate that more than 25% of the population suffers from some type of chronic stomach disorder including abdominal pain and indigestion. These symptoms occur for long periods and cause prolonged suffering, time off work and a poor quality of life. Moreover visits to doctors, expense of investigations and treatment result in many days lost from work and a colossal cost to the financial system. credits: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stomach_disease
GENERIC NAME: RANITIDINE
BRAND NAME: RAXIDE
Treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcer, including that associated with H. pylori, NSAID-associated peptic ulcer, postoperative ulcer, acute reflux esophagitis, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, chronic episodic dyspepsia, symptomatic relief in gastroesophageal reflux disease and prophylaxis of Mendelson's syndrome.
GENERIC NAME: OMEPRAZOLE
BRAND NAME: ACIFRE
Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor. It is used in conditions where inhibition of gastric acid secretion may be beneficial, including aspiration syndromes, dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer eg, gastric and duodenal ulcer and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
The lung is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. This exchange of gases is accomplished in the mosaic of specialized cells that form millions of tiny, exceptionally thin-walled air sacs called alveoli. credits: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pulmonary
GENERIC NAME: TERBUTALINE sulfate
BRAND NAME: PULMOXCEL
For the relief of bronchial asthma, bronchitis, bronchospasm, emphysema, bronchiectasis and other obstructive pulmonary diseases where bronchoconstriction is a complicating factor.
GENERIC NAME: SALBUTAMOL
BRAND NAME: VENTAR
Relief of bronchospasm in bronchial asthma; chronic bronchitis & emphysema.
GENERIC NAME: PREDNISONE
BRAND NAME: QUALISONE
Treatment of various disorders eg, Behcet's syndrome, Bell's palsy, chronic active hepatitis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), lichen, optic neuropathies, polymyalgia rheumatica, polymyositis and dermatomyositis, sarcoidosis and scleritis.
GENERIC NAME: MONTELUKAST sodium
BRAND NAME: LEUKAST
Prophylaxis and chronic treatment of asthma as adjunctive therapy in combination with a corticosteroid.
GENERIC NAME: LORATADINE
BRAND NAME: ZYLOHIST
Treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, perennial rhinitis, urticaria, allergic dermatologic disorders, angioedema and conjunctivitis.
GENERIC NAME: CETIRIZINE
BRAND NAME: TEXZINE
Used for the symptomatic relief of allergic conditions including rhinitis & chronic urticaria.
GENERIC NAME: FEXOFENADINE
BRAND NAME: NEOFEX
Relief of symptoms associated w/ seasonal allergic rhinitis & chronic idiopathic urticaria.
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GENERIC NAME: MELOXICAM
BRAND NAME: NEOXICAM
Meloxicam is used in the management of rheumatoid arthritis, for the short-term symptomatic treatment of acute exacerbations of osteoarthritis and for the symptomatic treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.
GENERIC NAME: MEFENAMIC ACID
BRAND NAME: STANGESIC
Relief of mild to moderate pain arising from rheumatoid arthritis (including Still's disease) soft tissue injuries, other painful musculoskeletal conditions, headache, dental pain, postoperative pain and dysmenorrhea.
GENERIC NAME: DICLOFENAC sodum
BRAND NAME: DIFENAX
Inflammatory and degenerative forms of rheumatism: Rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; osteoarthritis; and spondylarthritis.